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26. Scientists of India (contd)




5. Arya Bhatta - Born in 476 AD in Kerala. He studied at Nalanda in Bihar and later was made Head of the university by Gupta ruler, Buddh Gupta. He was the first to deduce that earth is round and that it rotates on its own axis creating day and night. He also declared that moon was dark and shines only because of sun light. The true reason for Solar and Lunar eclipses were also explained by him. Apart from being a great astronomer, he was an excellent mathematician also. He gave the value of ('pi') as 3.1416 for the first time. He also gave the table of sines. His method to find a solution to in determinate equations such as ax-by=c is also recognized the world over. He wrote a book Arya Bhattiya dealing with numerous mathematical and astronomical calculations, namely. geometry, mensuration, square root, cube root, progression and celestial sphere . He wrote another book Arya Bhatt Siddhanta. India's first satellite has been named after him. He died in 520 AD.

6. Vararmihir - Born in 499 AD at Kapittha, a village near Ujjain. Came in contact with renowned astronomer and mathematician, Arya Bhatt and determined to take up astrology and astronomy as a lifetime pursuit. Went to Ujjain and soon became so famous that emperor Vikramaditya, Chandra Gupta II made him one of the nine jewels of his court. He was first to declare that earth was spherical and there was some force which keeps bodies stuck to the earth. This force is now called Gravity. His initial name was Mihir. Varah was the title given to him by the king. He wrote many books, namely. Panch Sidhantika, Brihat Samhita, Brahjjatak which contain vast knowledge about astronomy. He died in 587 A. D.

7. Brahm Gupta - Was born in 598 AD at Bhinmall in Gujrat. He became court astronomer to king Vyaghramukh of Chapa dynasty. He was a great astronomer and mathematician. He was first to frame rules for operation of Zero. He declared that addition or subtraction of zero to any quantity, negative or positive does not effect it, product of any quantity with zero is zero and division of any quantity by zero is infinity. He also framed rules to solve a simple equation of the type ax +b=0, a quadratic equation of the type ax2+bx+c=0 and indeterminate equation like ax2+1=y2. He was the first to treat algebra as a different branch from arithmatic. He was the founder of a branch of higher mathematics called numerical analysis. He was conferred the title of Ganak Chakra Chudamani by the great mathematician Bhaskar. He wrote books Brahm Sphuta Siddhanta and Karan Khandakhadyaka. He died in 680 AD.



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