5. Arya Bhatta - Born in 476 AD in
Kerala. He studied at Nalanda in Bihar and later was made Head of the
university by Gupta ruler, Buddh Gupta. He was the first to
deduce that earth is round and that it rotates on its own axis
creating day and night. He also declared that moon was dark and
shines only because of sun light. The true reason for Solar and
Lunar eclipses were also explained by him. Apart from being a
great astronomer, he was an excellent mathematician also. He gave
the value of ('pi') as 3.1416 for the first time. He also gave
the table of sines. His method to find a solution to in determinate
equations such as ax-by=c is also recognized the world over.
He wrote a book Arya Bhattiya dealing with numerous mathematical
and astronomical calculations, namely. geometry, mensuration,
square root, cube root, progression and celestial sphere . He
wrote another book Arya Bhatt Siddhanta. India's first
satellite has been named after him. He died in 520 AD.
6. Vararmihir - Born in 499 AD at
Kapittha, a village near Ujjain. Came in contact with renowned astronomer and
mathematician, Arya Bhatt and determined to take up
astrology and astronomy as a lifetime pursuit. Went to Ujjain and
soon became so famous that emperor Vikramaditya, Chandra Gupta II
made him one of the nine jewels of his court. He was first
to declare that earth was spherical and there was some force which
keeps bodies stuck to the earth. This force is now called
Gravity. His initial name was Mihir. Varah was the title given to
him by the king. He wrote many books, namely. Panch Sidhantika,
Brihat Samhita, Brahjjatak which contain vast knowledge
about astronomy. He died in 587 A. D.
7. Brahm Gupta - Was born in 598 AD
at Bhinmall in Gujrat. He became court astronomer to king Vyaghramukh
of Chapa dynasty. He was a great astronomer and mathematician.
He was first to frame rules for operation of Zero. He
declared that addition or subtraction of zero to any quantity,
negative or positive does not effect it, product of any quantity with zero
is zero and division of any quantity by zero is infinity. He also
framed rules to solve a simple equation of the type ax +b=0, a
quadratic equation of the type ax2+bx+c=0 and indeterminate equation
like ax2+1=y2. He was the first to treat algebra as a
different branch from arithmatic. He was the founder of a branch of higher
mathematics called numerical analysis. He was conferred the
title of Ganak Chakra Chudamani by the great mathematician Bhaskar.
He wrote books Brahm Sphuta Siddhanta and Karan
Khandakhadyaka. He died in 680 AD.