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26. Scientists of India (contd)




8. Nagarjun - Born in Ist Century AD at Amravati in Andhra Pradesh. He was a great scholar and chemist of his time. His treatise 'Ras Ratnakar' dealt with preparation of Ras (mercury) compounds, extraction of metals such as silver, gold, tin and copper from their ores, the process of distillation. Iiquefication, sublimation and roasting. He also made attempts to prepare elixir of life and transmutation of base metals into gold. His book illustrates a number of apparatus. He also wrote another book Uttaratantra as supplement to Sushrut Samhita dealing with the preparation of medicinal drugs. Arogyamanjari, Kakshapatatantra, Yogsar and Yog Shatak are his other books.

9. Bhaskara I - He was born in 7th century AD and was an astronomer contemporary to Brahma Gupta. India's second satellite is named after him.

10. Bhaskaracharya II - Born in 1114 in Bijapur, Karnataka in the Sahyadri hills. He got inspired by Brahamgupta and following his foot steps, became a famous astronomer and mathematician. His most important treatise Sidhanta Shiromani dealt with arithmetic (in a chapter called Leelavati), algebra (in a chapter called Beejganit), spheres (in the chapter Goladhyaya ) and planetary mathematics (in Grihganita). The chapter on arithmetic was dedicated to his daughter Leelavati. He introduced cyclic method (chakraval) to solve algebric equations, which was rediscovered by Eropean mathematicians after 6 centuries and named inverse cycle. His book also contains the methods to determine area and volume of a sphere, some important formulae and theories in trignometry and permutation-combination. He can also be called founder of differential calculas. He conceived it several centuries before Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz who are considered in the world to be the founders of this subject. He had even given an example of what is now known as Differential Coefficient and the basic ldea of what is now known as Rolls Theorem.

11. Sawai Jai Singh II - Born in 1686 he was crowned as king of Amber at the age of 13. Apart from being king he was an eminent astronomer and architect. In 1727 he designed a new capital Jaipur, marvellous example of architecture. He made Pandit Jagannath, a maratha brahmin his guru. He collected astronomical treatises and tables from Portugal, Arabia and Europe, and got them translated into Sanskrit and gave them


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