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26. Scientists of India (contd)




Sanskrit names. He also brought a telescope from Europe and then began to build them himself. He got constructed first Jantar Mantar in 1724 at Delhi and in 1734 published his observations made in Delhi in the form of a table in Persian, titled Ziz Muhammed Shahi in the honour of his patron, the emperor, Muhammed Shah. In Jantar Mantar he built huge instruments in the form of masonary structures of lime and plaster. Among the instruments he designed himself are Samrat Yantra, Ram Yantra and Jai Prakash. The first is a sun clock which measurers the time with an accuracy of half a minute. Ram Yantra, a tall pillar inside a graduated cylinder measurers the altitude and azimuth of heavenly bodies to a high degree of precision. The most original of all is Jai Prakash a wide concave bowl on which the position of all heavenly bodies can he mapped round the clock. Later on Jantar Mantars were built at another places also.

12. Jagdish Chander Bose - Born on Nov. 30, 1858 at Mymensingh now in Bangla Desh. In 1885 he was offered lecturership at Presidency College, Calcutta, on a salary half that of his white colleagues. He accepted the job but refused to draw salary. After, three years, when the college principal, a Britisher found him to be a brilliant teacher conceded his demand and paid full salary since his appointment. Published his monograph 'Response in Living and Non-living' and showed experimentally, before the Royal Society that plants and metals have life. He can be called the inventor of wireless telegraphy as he held a demonstration about it one year before Marconi got it patented in his name. He was the first to fabricate the device that generated microwaves, radiowaves of very short wave lengths. Also he was the first to use these microwaves to understand the structure of materials. One of the device he had fabricated, now called wave guide, forms an essential component of several sophisticated electronic and nuclear equipments. He fabricated a highly sensitive "coheser" the device that detects radiowaves. Most wonderful instrument he invented was crescograph which measures the rate of growth of plants 20,000 times slower than snails speed. He founded Bose Institute at Calcutta. Died on Nov. 23, 1937

13. P. C. Ray -Born an Aug. 2, 1861 at Raruli Katipara, now in Bangla Desh. Apart from proficiency in various languages like Sanskrit. Latin, French and English, he was well versed in Political Science, Economics and History. He turned to Science after reading


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